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6 Basic Financial Ratios and What They Reveal

asset turnover ratio

A cash flow statement gives us an overview of how much money is coming in and out of the business over a certain period. Financial ratios show the profitability, solvency, and efficiency of a business. The financial ratios simplify the information and allow comparison both within one and between different companies.

A SWOT bookkeeping services is useful for analyzing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the business and its environment. SWOT analysis can help strengthen the core competencies of the business and help define objectives and strategies to help the business with its weaknesses. Name an example of a KPI used to measure the internal business process perspective. Name an example of a KPI used to measure the financial perspective. If total dividends are £70,000 and there are 50 shares, then DPS is £1,400.


The gross margin ratio measures how much profit a business makes after the cost of goods and services compared to net sales. Comparing companies can be illustrative – such as finding that Home Depot has a 33.6% gross profit margin versus Walmart’s 25.1%. The debt-to-asset ratio is the ratio of total debt to total assets.

Turnover Ratios

When a is experiencing financial difficulties and is unable to pay its debts, it can convert its assets into cash and use the money to settle any pending debts with more ease. (current assets – inventory) / Current liabilities, a financial ratio that measures the ability to pay current liabilities with quick assets . The fourth type of financial ratio analysis is the business risk ratio. Here, we measure how sensitive the company’s earnings are concerning its fixed costs and the assumed debt on the balance sheet.

This ratio indicates a company’s ability to pay its short-term bills. A ratio of greater than one is usually a minimum because anything less than one means the company has more liabilities than assets. A high ratio indicates more of a safety cushion, which increases flexibility because some of the inventory items and receivable balances may not be easily convertible to cash. Financial ratios relate or connect two amounts from a company’s financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, statement of cash flows, etc.).

The major line item excluded in the quick ratio is inventory, which can make up a large portion of current assets but may not easily be converted to cash. During times of stress, high inventories across all companies in the industry may make selling inventory difficult. In addition, if company stockpiles are overly specialized or nearly obsolete, they may be worth significantly less to a potential buyer. Consider Apple Inc. , for example, which is known to use specialized parts for its products. If the company needed to quickly liquidate inventory, the stockpiles it is carrying may be worth a great deal less than the inventory figure it carries on its accounting books. Asset turnover measures how efficiently a company uses its total assets to generate revenues.

For instance, the Net Income is produced through assets that the company bought. Therefore, for every dollar invested in the business the company made 20 cents. Indeed, the operating profit is considered one of the most important metrics within the P&L.

What Does Ratio Analysis Tell You?

Coverage RatioThe coverage ratio indicates the company’s ability to meet all of its obligations, including debt, leasing payments, and dividends, over any specified period. A higher coverage ratio indicates that the business is a stronger position to repay its debt. Popular coverage ratios include debt, interest, asset, and cash coverage. EPSEarnings Per Share is a key financial metric that investors use to assess a company’s performance and profitability before investing. Return On EquityReturn on Equity represents financial performance of a company. This financial ratio measures profitability concerning the total capital employed in a business enterprise.

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Analysis, which compares ratios of several companies from the same industry. Operations are moving cash quickly through the business and you will not have any problem paying supplier invoices. The cash conversion cycle measures how fast your company can convert its cash on hand into inventory, and then convert inventory back into cash. An increasing ratio can indicate that a company is having difficulty paying its bills. Average collection period ratio, also known as average days receivable, looks at the average number of days customers take to pay for your products or services. In general, shorter average days inventory is preferable, as it implies your money is not tied up for long in the process of generating revenue.

#A1. Current Ratio

The higher the value, the better a firm is turning its assets into revenue. If cost of goods sold is £188,000 and stock is £20,000, then stock turnover will be 9.4. The lower the value, the quicker a firm pays its bills and invoices to its trade creditors. It means that a company takes an average of 54.8 days to pay its suppliers.

In theory, earnings are split among fewer owners, creating higher earnings per share. However, the increased financial risk of higher leverage may hold the company to stricter debt covenants. These covenants could restrict the company’s growth opportunities and ability to pay or raise dividends. Solvency ratios measure a company’s ability to meet its longer-term obligations. Analysis of solvency ratios provides insight on a company’s capital structure as well as the level of financial leverage a firm is using.

Introduction to Financial Ratios

A current ratio under 1.00x, for example, means that even if the company liquidates all of its current assets, it would still be unable to cover its current liabilities. In our example, the firm is operating with a very low current ratio of 0.91x. It indicates that if the firm liquidated all of its current assets at the recorded value, it would only be able to cover 91% of its current liabilities. In our example in Table 1, the inventory turnover ratio of 2.6x means that inventory was “turned over” or replenished 2.6 times during a period of one year. The $190 million represents the average inventory held during 2011, the time period when $500 million was generated in cost of goods sold. The cash ratio measures a business’s ability to use cash and cash equivalent to pay off short-term liabilities.

  • Net Income / Average Total Assets, A measure of the overall effectiveness of management in generating returns to common stockholders with its available assets.
  • In our example in Table 1, the inventory turnover ratio of 2.6x means that inventory was “turned over” or replenished 2.6 times during a period of one year.
  • Indeed, suppliers will assess whether or not to entertain business with an organization based on its capability to quickly repay for its obligations.
  • Organizational culture includes the shared values and beliefs of a business that impacts the daily work environment of employees of an organization.

COGS or the cost of goods sold is the direct cost of making and distributing a product. Assets are everything you’ve got invested in your business, including cash, equipment, factories, offices, or other real estate. It indicates what kind of rate of return was earned on the book value of the owner’s equity. A higher ratio indicates higher collections, while a lower ratio indicates a lower cash collection.

Days in inventory ratio

That is why we carry out financial ratio analysis and calculate ratios. Efficiency ratios measure how well the business is using its assets and liabilities to generate sales and earn profits. They calculate the use of inventory, machinery utilization, turnover of liabilities, as well as the usage of equity.

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Horizontal analysis is used in financial statement analysis to compare historical data, such as ratios or line items, over a number of accounting periods. First, ratio analysis can be performed to track changes to a company over time to better understand the trajectory of operations. Second, ratio analysis can be performed to compare results with other similar companies to see how the company is doing compared to competitors. Third, ratio analysis can be performed to strive for specific internally-set or externally-set benchmarks. Likewise, they measure a company today against its historical numbers.

accounts receivable

This ratio provides insight into the solvency of the business by reflecting the ability of shareholder equity to cover all debt in the event of a business downturn. Earnings Per ShareEarnings Per Share is a key financial metric that investors use to assess a company’s performance and profitability before investing. It is calculated by dividing total earnings or total net income by the total number of outstanding shares. The higher the earnings per share , the more profitable the company is. ROE RatioReturn on Equity represents financial performance of a company. It is calculated as the net income divided by the shareholders equity.

Indicates the amount of after-tax profit generated for each dollar of equity. A measure of the rate of return the shareholders received on their investment. Enterprise value is a measure of a company’s total value, often used as a comprehensive alternative to equity market capitalization that includes debt.


Higher ratios are preferable because they indicate your company can easily service its debt. These are ratios to use when you want to know how extensively you’re using debt to support your business. Liquidity refers to the ease with which an asset, or security, can be converted into ready cash without affecting its market price.

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